Review of Ayurvedic Medicines – Formulas

There are a great many formulas described in Ayurveda, with many different variations. To avoid confusion, many of the following formulas are listed with reference to the classical text in which they are described. Where no text is mentioned, the formula is a unique preparation to Dr. Mana and his tradition of Nepalese Ayurveda. Preparation and proportions will be detailed in a future text.

Abhayarista (Charaka Samhita) is a herbal wine containing Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), Kapittha fruit (wood apple / Feronia limonia), Indravaruni fruit (bitter apple / Citrullus colocynthis), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Kustha root (Saussurea lappa) and Matsyandika (molasses).

Ahiphenasava (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) is herbal wine prepared with Ahiphenam seed extract (poppy / Papaver somniferum).

Ajamodadi churna (Sarngadhara Samhita) is a herbal powder containing Ajamoda seed (wild celery / Carum roxburghianum), Vidanga seeds (Embelia ribes), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Chitraka root (leadwort / Plumbago zeylanica), Pippali root (long pepper / Piper longum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Shatapuspa seed (anise / Pimpinella anisum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Bidhara root (Gmelina asiatica) , and Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis).

Alarasayana contains Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Haritala Bhasma (orpiment / purified yellow arsenic trisulphide), and Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica).

Amalakyadi churna contains Swarnapatri leaf (senna / Cassia auriculata), Pippali root (long pepper / Piper longum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), and Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula).

Anandabhairavarasa vati contains Vatsanabha (aconite tuber, purified / Aconitum palmatum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Tankana Bhasma (purified borax) and Hingulu Bhasma (cinnabar / purified red cinnabar sulphide).

Apamargakshara taila eardrops (Bhavaprakasha Samhita) contains Achyranthes root ash (Achyranthes bidentata) and Tila oil (sesame seed / Sesamum indicum).

Arjuna ghritam (Chakradatta) is made from Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna) cooked in ghrita (clarified butter).

Arkalavanam (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) contains the fresh leaf of Arka (milkweed / Calotropis gigantea) cooked with Saindhavam (mineral salt).

Aswatthakasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum).

Avipattikara churna (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) is made primarily from Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum) and Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), along with Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), and Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala).

Bala taila (Susruta Samhita) is a medicated oil containing Bala plant (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Atibala plant (Sida rhombifolia), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Punarnava (Boerhavia difusa), and Tila seed oil (sesame / Sesamum indicum).

Baladyam ghritam (Chakradatta) is a medicated ghee preparation made from Nagabala (Sida spinosa, wild), Bala plant (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), and Mustaka tuber (Cyperus rotundus) based in ghrita (ghee).

Bhallataka Rasayana (Rasatarangini) contains Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Bhallataka (marking nut tree / Semecarpus anacardium) taken with ghrita (ghee) and madhu (honey).

Bilwa taila eardrops (Bhavaprakasha Samhita), contains Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos), gou mutra (cow urine), and aja kshira (goat milk), prepared in sesame oil.

Brihatyadigana churna (Chakradatta) contains Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Nilotpalam flower (blue lotus / Iris nepalensis), Bhargi root/resin (Turk’s turban / Clerodendron serratum), Karchura tuber/seed (zedoary /Curcuma zedoaria), Karkatashringi fruit gall (Insect gall on Pistacia intergerrima), Duralambha bush (Fragonia cretica), Indrayava seed (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Patola leaf (Trichosanthes dioica) and Kutki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa).

Chandanadi churna is made from Rakta Chandanam wood (red sandalwood / Pterocarpus santalinus), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Nagakesara seed (Ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Ushira root (khus khus / Andropogon muricatum), Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), and Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum).

Chandraprabha vati (Sarngadhara Samhita) contain Shilajita Rasayana and Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), and a small amount of the very powerful Karapura leaf (camphor / Cinnamomum camphora). The formula also contains Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Musta tuber (nut grass / Cyperus rotundus, big), Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Ativisha tuber, purified (aconite / Aconitum heterophyllum), Darvi root (Berberis nepalensis), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Chavyam stem (Piper chava), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Gajapippali fruit (Piper chava), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Makshikam Bhasma (purified copper pyrites), Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Lavanatrayam (mineral salt, sea salt and Vidam, salt made from Phyllanthus emblica ), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Danti seed (Baliospermum montanum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide) and Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum).

Chandrodayavarti (eye salve – Chakradatta) is made from Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Kustha root (Saussurea lappa), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Bibhitaki seed pulp (Terminalia belerica), Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), and Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar) ground with Aja paya (goat milk).

Chaturdasanga powder is made from Katphalam bark (box byrtle / Myrica nagi), Nilotpalam flower (blue lotus / Iris nepalensis), Karkatashringi fruit gall (Insect gall on Pistacia intergerrima), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Duralambha bush (Fragonia cretica), Krisnajiraka seed (black cumin / Nigella sativa), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Talisham leaf (rhododendron / Rhododendron stesum), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum) and Nagakesara seed (Ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea).

Chhuchhundari oil is made from Chhuchhundara (muskrat meat), water and Tila oil (sesame seed / Sesamum indicum).

Chyavanaprasha paste (Charaka Samhita) contains Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica) as the main ingredient, along with Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos), Agnimantha (Premna integrifolia), Syonaka (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Kashmari (kashmari / Gmelina arborea), Patala (Stereospermum personatum), Bala plant (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Prisniparni plant (Uraria lagopoides), Shalaparni plant (Desmodium gangeticum), Masaparni (Teramnus labialis) , Mudgaparni (Phaseolus trilobus), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Gokshura fruit (Tribulus terrestris), Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Karkatashringi fruit gall (Insect gall on Pistacia intergerrima), Tamalaki herb (Phyllanthus niruni), Draksha fruit (grape / Vitis vinifera), Jivanti leaf (lettuce / Lactuca sativa), Nilotpalam flower (blue lotus / Iris nepalensis), Agaru wood (eaglewood / Aquilaria agallocha), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Vriddhi tuber (Paris polyphylla, big), Jivaka bulb (wild garlic / Allium wallichii, small), Karchura (zedoary /Curcuma zedoaria), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Punarnava plant/root (Boerhavia difusa), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Rakta Chandanam wood (red sandalwood / Pterocarpus santalinus), Utpala (Nymphaea stellata), Vidari tuber (Ipomea paniculata), Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Kakoli bulb (Fritillaria cirrhosa), Kakanasika shrub (Leea aquata), Tila seed oil (sesame / Sesamum indicum), ghrita (ghee / clarified butter), Vetasa (cane sugar, brown / Saccharum officinarum), madhu (honey), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala) and Nagakesara seed/flower (ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea).

Dadimadi powder contains Dadima rind (pomegranate / Punica granatum), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis) and Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum).

Dashamula contains Bilwa root (bael / Aegle marmelos), Syonaka root (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Kashmari root (kashmari / Gmelina arborea), Patala root (Stereospermum personatum), Agnimantha root (Premna integrifolia), Shalaparni root (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisniparni root (Uraria lagopoides), Brihati root (Solanum indicum), Kantakari root (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum) and Gokshura root (Tribulus terrestris)

Dhanwayasa compound contains Duralambha bush (Fragonia cretica), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum) and Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum).

Dhanyapanchakam is made from Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis) and Saindhavam (mineral salt from Sindhu).

Drakshyasava (fermented liquid – Sarngadhara Samhita) contains Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Nagakesara (ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Priyangu seed (Prunus mahaleb), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), and Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes) fermented with raisins and brown sugar or molasses.

Gairikadi Anjanam (eye salve – Susruta Samhita) is made from Gairika (red clay / ocre), Saindhavam (mineral salt from Sindhu), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), and Godantamasi (charred cow teeth) with honey.

Gandhakararasyayana are Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Haritala Bhasma (orpiment / purified yellow arsenic trisulphide), and Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica).

Gokshuradi guggulu vati (Sarngadhara Samhita) are made primarily from Gokshura fruit (Tribulus terrestris) and Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul). They also contain Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula) and Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus).

Gomamsadi Anjanam (eye salve – Susruta Samhita) is made from Gomamsa (beef), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Sirisa seed (Albizzia lebbeck) and Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar) with honey.

Guduchi Chitraka Rasena is the decoction of Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Kustha root (Saussurea lappa), Kutaja bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex), and Kutaki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa).

Haridra Amalaki Rasena (Charaka Samhita) is the decoction of Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa) Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), madhu (honey), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara) and Mustaka tuber (Cyperus rotundus).

Haridra Amalirasena (Charaka Samhita) is made from Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Katphalam bark (box byrtle / Myrica nagi), Mustaka tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata), Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna), and Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album).

Haridra Daruharidra Kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa) and Daruharidra bark (barberry / Berberis nepalensis), taken with honey.

Haridra kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), Agaru wood (eaglewood / Aquilaria agallocha) and Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa).

Haritakivarti (Chakradatta) is an eyesalve made from Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Hardira root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Pippali fruit (Piper longum) and saindhava.

Haritala Nisha Nimbakalka is made from Haritala Bhasma (orpiment / purified yellow arsenic trisulphide), Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica) and Patola fruit (Trichosanthes dioica).

Kaisara Guggulu vati (Sarngadhara Samhita) contains Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Emblica officinalis), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), and purified Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul). It also contains small amounts of Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Danti seed (Baliospermum montanum) and Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum).

Kakubha Chandana Kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna) and Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), taken with honey.

Kalaka combination (Charaka Samhita) is made from Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Daruharidra extract (barberry / Berberis nepalensis), Chavyam fruit (Piper chava),Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata) , Grihadhuma (black soot), and Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica) mixed with honey.

Kamalakilyana contains Swarnapatri leaf (senna / Cassia auriculata), Pippali root (long pepper / Piper longum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), and Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Shukti Bhasma (oyster shell ash /Ostrea gigas) and Mandura Bhasma (purified iron ore oxide), and Yavasa (Alhagi maurorum).

Kanakabindwaristam contains Khadira extract (catechu / Acacia catechu, white), ghrita (ghee), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes) and Mustaka tuber (Cyperus rotundus).

Kanchanara guggulu vati contains Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul) and Kanchanara bark (mountain ebony / Bauhinia tomentosa). It also contains Triphala (Emblica officinalis / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Trikatu, Varuna bark/stem (Three-leaved caper / Crataeva religiosa), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Twak bark/stem (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Patram leaf (cassia / Cinnamomum tamala).

Kankayana vati (Chakradatta) contain Danti seed (Baliospermum montanum), Karchura tuber/seed (zedoary /Curcuma zedoaria), Nilotpalam flower (blue lotus / Iris nepalensis), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Dadima rind (pomegranate / Punica granatum), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Chitraka root (Leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Amlavetasa root (rhubarb / Rheum emodi) , Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Yavani seed (wild omum / Trachyspermum ammi), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Dhanyakam seed (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Aparajita seed/root (butterfly pea / Clitoria ternatea), Ajamoda seed (wild celery / Carum roxburghianum), Krisnajiraka seed (black cumin / Nigella sativa), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex),Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Yavasa alkaline ash (Alhagi maurorum), Lavanapachakam (the five salts – see page 253), and Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), ground with the juice of Matulunga fruit (Citron / Citrus medica).

Karpurasava (raw herb fermentation – Bhaisajya Ratnavali) contains Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Yavani seed (wild omum / Trachyspermum ammi), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Karapura leaf exudate (camphor / Cinnamomum camphora). These herbs are mixed with alcohol and tinctured.

Kasturadi vati (Charaka Samhita) are made from Kasturi (deer musk / Moschus moschiferus), Khadira extract (catechu / Acacia catechu, white), Sphutikarika (purified alum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Jatiphalam (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Nagakesara seed (Ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Babbula bark (gum arabic / Acacia arabica) and Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala). In parts of the world where deer musk is not available or illegal because of the Musk deer’s endangered status the pills can be made without it.

Krimighnayoga eye salve (Chakradatta) is made from Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Kutaja bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), and Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), mixed with Aja paya (Goat milk).

Krimimudgararasa vati contain Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Ajamoda seed (wild celery / Carum roxburghianum), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Kuchila seed (purified nux vomica /Strychnos nuxvomica) and Hastikarnapalasa seed (bastard teak / Butea monosperma).

Krisna vati (Bhava Prakasha) contain Kumari (aloe leaf gum extract / Aloe barbadensis), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum) and Tankana Bhasma (purified borax).

Kshyakesarirasa contains Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Sphutikarika (purified alum), Vatsanabha (aconite tuber, purified / Aconitum palmatum), and Nrisara (purified ammonium chloride).

Kusmandavaleha (semi-solid herbs/sugars – Bhaisajya Ratnavali) contains a special preparation of Kusmanda fruit (wax gourd / Benincasa hispida), ghrita (clarified butter, madhu (honey) and Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum) into which the following powders are added: Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Dhanyakam seed (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum) and Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum).

Lauha Triphala (Chakradatta) is made by combining Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide) with Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula).

Lauhasava (Sarngadhara Samhita) is a fermentation made from Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Yavani seed (wild omum / Trachyspermum ammi), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Mustaka tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Chitraka root (Leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), and madhu (honey).

Lavanapachakam contains Samudram (sea salt), Saindhvam (mineral salt), Sauvarchalam (black salt), Romaka (salt of Roma lake) and Vidam (salt made from Amalaki fruit – Phyllanthus emblica).

Lavangadi powder (Chakradatta) contains Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), Gajapippali fruit (Piper chava), Ushira root (Andropogon muricatum), Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Nagakesara seed (Ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Utpala (Nymphaea stellata), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Krisnajiraka seed (black cumin / Nigella sativa), Agaru wood (eaglewood / Aquilaria agallocha), Padmam stamen (white lotus / Nelumbo nucifera), Tagara bark (Erytania coronarea), Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Karapura leaf (camphor / Cinnamomum camphora), Jatiphalam (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Bhringaraja plant (Eclipta alba), and Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum).

Maha Yogaraja Guggulu pills (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) are made primarily from Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), and Triphala (Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Emblica officinalis). Small amounts of the following herbs and purified minerals are also added: Nagaram rhizome (Indian cyperus / Cyperus pertenuis), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Chavyam stem (Piper chava), Pippali root (long pepper / Piper longum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex), Ajamoda seed (wild celery / Carum roxburghianum), Sarsapa seed (turnip / Brassica campestris), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Krisnajiraka seed (black cumin / Nigella sativa), Renuka fruit (piper aurantiacum), Indrayava seed (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Gajapippali fruit (Scindapsus officinalis), Kutki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa), Ativisha tuber, purified (aconite / Aconitum heterophyllum), Bhargi root (Turk’s turban / Clerodendron serratum), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Murva plant (Bauhinia vahli), Vanga Bhasma (purified tin oxide), Rajata Bhasma (purified silver oxide), Naga Bhasma (purified lead oxide), Mandura Bhasma (purified iron ore oxide), Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide).

Mahousadhayoga anjana contains powders of Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), and Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus) mixed with juice of Matulunga fruit (Citron / Citrus medica).

Mandura vati contain Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Shukti Bhasma (oyster shell ash /Ostrea gigas) and Mandura Bhasma (purified iron ore oxide).

Manduravataka contains Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Shukti Bhasma (oyster shell ash /Ostrea gigas), and Mandura Bhasma (purified iron ore oxide).

Manjistha Chandana kashaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Manjistha plant (Indian madder / Rubia cordifolia) and Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album).

Manohwa compound (Susruta Samhita) contains Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar), Kashisa (ferrous sulfate), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Rasanjana (Daruharidra bark extract / Berberis nepalensis), and Saindhavam (mineral salt), mixed with honey.

Mriddhika kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Triphala powder (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula) cooked with Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica) and Draksha fruit (grape / Vitis vinifera).

Mrigamadasava (Arka Prakasha) is an alcohol-based medicine made with Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Jatiphalam (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), madhu (honey), and Kasturi (deer musk / Moschus moschiferus).

Mrityunjayarasa (Bhava Prakasha) is made from Vatsanabha (aconite tuber, purified / Aconitum palmatum), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Tankana Bhasma (purified borax), and Hingulu Bhasma (cinnabar / purified red cinnabar sulphide), ground with the juice of Adrakam root (ginger / Zingiber officinalis) and made into pills.

Nagara compound (Susruta Samhita) is made from Nagaram rhizome (Indian cyperus / Cyperus pertenuis), Sarsapi seed (black mustard / Sinapis juncea), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula) and Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus) mixed with Daruharidra bark/extract (barberry / Berberis nepalensis).

Narayana taila (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) contains gou kshira (cow milk), Shatavari root (wild asparagus / Asparagus racemosus), and Tila seed oil (sesame / Sesamum indicum), along with small amounts of Ashwagandha root (Convolvulus arvensis / Withania somnifera), Bala root (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos), Patala root (Stereospermum personatum), Brihati root (vrihati / Solanum indicum), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Gokshura fruit (Tribulus terrestris), Atibala plant (Sida rhombifolia), Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica), Syonaka root (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Punarnava root (Boerhavia difusa), Agnimantha root (Premna integrifolia), Kustha root (Saussurea lappa), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), Jatamansi rhizome (spikenard /Nardostachys jatamansi), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Rasna root/leaf (Vanda roxburghii), Shatapuspa seed (anise / Pimpinella anisum), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Shalaparni plant (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisniparni plant (Uraria lagopoides) and Tagara bark (Erytania coronarea).

Narikela Lavanam (Chakradatta) is made by opening a hole in a Narikela (coconut / Cocos nucifera), and putting in Saindhavam (mineral salt), then sealing and cooking.

Navarasa vati (Satmya Darpana) contain Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide), Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Nagakesara seed (ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Matshya bile (fish bile), Kumkumam stamen (saffron / Crocus sativum), Praneswara (standard anti-fever compound), Vamsalochana (bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), and Kasturi (deer musk / Moschus moschiferus). Pills are made by grinding the formula with the juice of Brahmi (gotu kola / Hydrocotyle asiatica /Centella asiatica).

Nimbadi is made from Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica), Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), and Shukti Bhasma (oyster shell ash /Ostrea gigas).

Nimbakasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica) and taken with madhu (honey).

Nisadi oil (Chakradatta) is made from oil cooked with Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata), Priyangu seed (Prunus mahaleb), and Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra).

Nyagrodhadi kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is a decoction made from Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Arjuna bark (Terminalia arjuna), Amrataka fruit (Spondias magnifera), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kutaki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa), Bhallataka (marking nut tree / Semecarpus anacardium), and Palasha seed (bastard teak / Butea frondosa) and any one of the herbs from the Ficus genus. These include Udumbara (Ficus glomerata), Vata bark (banyan tree / Ficus bengalensis) and Aswattha bark (bodhi tree / Ficus religiosa).

Panchamulam (‘five roots’ compound) is comprised of equal parts Bilwa root (bael / Aegle marmelos), Syonaka root (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Agnimantha root (Premna integrifolia), Patala root (Stereospermum personatum) and Kashmari root (kashmarya / Gmelina arborea)

Pippalyadi churna is made from Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis) and Vidam (Salt made from Amalaki fruit – Phyllanthus emblica). This compound is more effective if given with Nrisara (purified ammonium chloride).

Pitaka combination (Charaka Samhita) is made from Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar), Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Haritala Bhasma (orpiment / purified yellow arsenic trisulphide), Saindhavam (mineral salt from Sindhu), and Daruharidra bark extract (barberry / Berberis nepalensis) mixed with honey and suspended in the scraped top layer of ghrita (ghee).

Priyangu compound (Susruta Samhita) is made from Priyangu seed (Prunus mahaleb), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata) and honey.

Punarnavadiyoga (Chakradatta) is made from Punarnava plant/root (Boerhavia difusa), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Rajavriksa (Indian laburnum /Cassia fistula), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), and Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara) taken with Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul) and gou mutra (cow urine).

Rajavriksa kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is the decoction of Rajavriksa pod pulp (Indian laburnum /Cassia fistula).

Rasa churna is made from 50 parts of Twak bark (cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and one part of Rasakarpura (white crystal of mercury sulphide / mineral camphore) ground in Nimbu juice (lemon / Citrus limonium). This compound is toxic and is only prescribed in doses of 100-200 mg.

Rasanjana taila (Susruta Samhita) is made from oil cooked with Rasanjana (condensed extract of Daruharidra bark - Berberis nepalensis or Darvi root - Berberis asiatica), Ativisha tuber, purified (aconite / Aconitum heterophyllum), and Musta tuber (nut grass / Cyperus rotundus)

Rasanjanam eye salve (Chakradatta) is made from a condensed extract of Daruharidra bark (Berberis nepalensis) or Darvi root (Berberis asiatica).

Sadbindu taila (medicated oil – Bhaisajya Ratnavali) contains Bhringaraja juice (Eclipta alba) with Krisnatilam seed oil (black sesame / Sesamum indicum) and Aja paya (goat milk). Small amounts of the following ingredients are added: Eranda root (Castor oil plant / Ricinus communis), Tagara stem (Erytania coronarea), Shatapuspa seed (anise / Pimpinella anisum), Jivanti root (lettuce / Lactuca sativa), Rasna root/leaf (Vanda roxburghii), Saindhavam (mineral salt from Sindhu), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamon zeylanicum), Vidanga seeds (Embelia ribes), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), and Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis).

Sambhukadi vati are made from Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis) Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Vidam (Salt made from Amalaki fruit), and Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare). Standard dosage is 2 pills twice daily.

Samudradi powder (Chakradatta) is made from Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Lavanapachakam (the five salts – see page 253), Danti seed (Baliospermum montanum), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Mandura Bhasma (purified iron ore oxide), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Surana tuber (telugo potato / Amorphophallus campanulatum), and gou mutra (cow urine), mixed with Dadhi (yogurt) and gou kshira (cow milk).

Samudraphenanjanam (Susruta Samhita) is made from Samudraphenam (sea foam / Sepia species), Saindhavam (mineral salt from Sindhu), Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), Mudga bean (mung bean / Phaseolus mungo), and Sobhanjan (Moringa oleifera).

Sankha vati contains Yavani seed (wild omum / Trachyspermum ammi), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Bijaya leaf (hemp / Cannabis sativa), Nagaram rhizome (Indian cyperus / Cyperus pertenuis), Chitraka root (Leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Dhanyakam seed (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica)and Ahiphenam seed (poppy / Papaver somniferum).

Sannipata Vairava vati (Sarngadhara Samhita) contain Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide), Vanga Bhasma (purified tin oxide), Sobhanjan (Moringa oleifera), Hemakshiri plant (Swarnakshiri / Argemone mexicana), Aparajita seed/root (butterfly pea / Clitoria ternatea), Devadali herb (Luffa echinota), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Tagara bark (Erytania coronarea), Jatamansi rhizome (spikenard / Valeriana jatamansi / Nardostachys jatamansi) and Tanduliyakam plant (Amaranthus polyganus).

Sariva paste (Susruta Samhita) is made from Sariva plant (Trachelospermum fragrans), Utpala (any type of lotus flower), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Lodhram bark (Symplocos paniculata), Agaru wood (eaglewood / Aquilaria agallocha) and Rakta Chandanam wood (red sandalwood / Pterocarpus santalinus).

Sarvajwaraharalauha vati (Bhava Prakasha) contain Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide) with Jatiphalam bark (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Chitraka root (Leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Gajapippali fruit (Scindapsus officinalis), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Varuna bark (Three-leaved caper / Crataeva religiosa), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Kutki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Sobhanjan (Moringa oleifera), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra) Kutaja bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica) and Indrayava seed (Holarrhena antidysenterica). Standard dosage is 2 pills twice daily.

Shatavariyoga is made from Shatavari root (asparagus / Asparagus racemosus), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / Phyllanthus emblica), Brahmi leaf/root (gotu kola / Centella asiatica), and Ashwagandha root (Convolvulus arvensis / Withania somnifera).

Shatpala ghrita contains Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Chavyam fruit (Piper chava), Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), and Saindhavam (mineral salt) cooked in gou kshira (cow milk) and ghrita (ghee / clarified butter).

Shatyadigana churna (Chakradatta) contains Karchura (zedoary /Curcuma zedoaria), Puskaram tuber (Inula racemosa), Duralambha bush (Fragonia cretica), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Nagaram rhizome (nut grass / Cyperus pertenuis), Patha root (Stephania hernandifolia), and Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata).

Shilajita Rasayana contains Shilajita as the main ingredient, with small amounts of Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), and very small amounts of the following: Karapura leaf (camphor / Cinnamomum camphora), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Musta tuber (nut grass / Cyperus rotundus, big), Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Ativisha tuber, purified (aconite / Aconitum heterophyllum), Darvi root (Berberis nepalensis), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Chitraka root (leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Dhanyakam seeds (coriander / Coriandrum sativum), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Chavyam stem (Piper chava), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Gajapippali fruit (Piper chava), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Makshikam Bhasma (purified copper pyrites), Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), Lavanatrayam (mineral salt, sea salt and Vidam, salt made from Phyllanthus emblica ), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Danti seed (Baliospermum montanum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), and Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum).

Shimshapa kasaya (Susruta Samhita) is the decoction of Shimshapa bark (rosewood / Dalbergia sisso).

Shirashularivajrarasa contains Bilwa root (bael / Aegle marmelos), Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), Tamra Bhasma (purified copper oxide), Shalaparni plant (Desmodium gangeticum), Vidanga seeds (Embelia ribes), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / Phyllanthus emblica), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Kashmari (Gmelina arborea), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Syonaka (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Agnimantha (Premna integrifolia), Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Patala root/bark (Stereospermum personatum), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Haritaki fruit (Terminalia chebula), Gokshura fruit (Tribulus terrestris), Prisniparni plant (Uraria lagopoides), and Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis)

Shitarasa vati (Rasatarangini) are made from Shilajita Rasayana, Daruharidra bark extract (rasanjana / Berberis nepalensis), Shala resin (sal tree /Shorea robusta), and Snigdhajeera seed (Plantago ovata).

Shrivestaka compound (Susruta Samhita) is made from Shala resin (sal tree /Shorea robusta) , Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul) and Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra).

Siddhapraneswar contains Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide), Kajjali (mercury powder ground with pure sulphur) and Lavanapachakam (the five salts).

Sirasularivajrarasa vati contain Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Lauha Bhasma (purified iron oxide), Trivrit root (Indian rhubarb /Operculina turpenthum), Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Tamra Bhasma (purified copper oxide), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Gokshura fruit (Tribulus terrestris), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Agnimantha (Premna integrifolia), Bilwa root (bael / Aegle marmelos), Syonaka (Indian trumpet flower / Oroxylon indicum), Patala root/bark (Stereospermum personatum), Kashmari (Gmelina arborea), Shalaparni plant (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisniparni plant (Uraria lagopoides), Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum), and Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum).

Sitopaladi powder (Charaka Samhita) is made from Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora) and Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum).

Sringarabhraka compound contains Mrigashringa horn ash (deer / Cervus nippon) and Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide) as the main ingredients. It also contains Karapura leaf (camphor / Cinnamomum camphora), Jatiphalam seed (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Jatiphalam bark (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Gajapippali fruit (Scindapsus officinalis), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Jambu seeds (Syzygium jambolanum), Jatamansi rhizome (spikenard / Nardostachys jatamansi), Rohitaka stem (rhododendron / Rhododendron arboreum), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Nagakesara seed (Ironwood tree / Mesua ferrea), Kustha root (Saussurea lappa), Dhataki flower (Woodfordia fruticosa), Triphala (Terminalia chebula , Terminalia belerica, Phyllanthus emblica) , Trikatu ( Piper longum, Piper nigrum,Zingiber officinalis), Suksmaila seed (cardamom / Elettaria cardamomum), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), and Kajjali (mercury powder ground with pure sulphur for purification).

Sudarsana contains Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata) as the major ingredient (about one third), along with Triphala (Phyllanthus emblica / Terminalia belerica / Terminalia chebula), Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Daruharidra bark/extract (barberry / Berberis nepalensis), Brihati shrub (vrihati / Solanum indicum), Kantakari herb (Black nightshade / Solanum xanthocarpum), Karchura tuber/seed (Zedoary /Curcuma zedoaria), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Pippalamulam (long pepper root / Piper longum), Murva plant (Bauhinia vahli), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Duralambha bush (Fragonia cretica), Kutki rhizome (Indian gentian / Picrorhiza kurroa), Parpata herb (Fumaria indica), Musta tuber (Cyperus rotundus), Hriverum plant (Pavonia odorata), Nimba leaf (neem / Azadirachta indica), Puskaram tuber (Inula racemosa / Iris germanica), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra), Indrayava seed (Holarrhena antidysenterica) , Kutaja bark (Holarrhena antidysenterica), Bhargi root resin (Turk’s turban / Clerodendron serratum), Sobhanjan seed (Moringa oleifera), Sphutikarika (purified alum), Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Padmakam heartwood (Betula alnoides), Ushira root (Andropogon muricatum), Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), Ativisha tuber, purified (aconite / Aconitum heterophyllum), Bala plant (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Shalaparni plant (Desmodium gangeticum), Prisniparni plant (Uraria lagopoides), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Tagara bark (Erytania coronarea), Chitraka root (Leadwort, white flower / Plumbago zeylanica), Devadaru wood (Himalayan cedar / Cedrus deodara), Gajapippali fruit (Piper chava), Patram leaf (Cassia cinnamon / Cinnamomum tamala), Patola leaf (Trichosanthes dioica), Jivaka bulb (wild garlic / Allium wallichii, small), Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), Vamsalochana (Bamboo manna / Bambusa breviflora), Padmam plant (lotus / Nelumbo nucifera), Kakoli bulb (Fritillaria cirrhosa), Palasha seed (bastard teak / Butea frondosa), Jatiphalam seed/bark (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans) and Rohitaka stem (rhododendron / Rhododendron arboreum). Standard dosage is 1-2 grams twice daily.

Sukhavativarti eye salve (Chakradatta) is made from Kataka fruit (Strychnos potatorum), Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum), Samudraphenam (sea foam / Sepia species), Rasanjana (extract of Berberis nepalensis), madhu (honey), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar), and Kukkuta andam (chicken egg shell).

Sulanirmulanarasa vati are made from Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Shankha Bhasma (purified conch shell oxide), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Amlavetasa root (rhubarb / Rheum emodi) and Kuchila seed (purified nux vomica /Strychnos nuxvomica) ground with Adrakam juice (ginger / Zingiber officinalis).

Surasadigana (Susruta Samhita) contains Dronapuspi herb (Leucus cephalotus), Kasamarda plant (Cassia sophera), Vidanga seed (Embelia ribes), Tulsi plant (holy basil / Ocimum sanctum), Kuchila seed (nux vomica /Strychnos nuxvomica), Nirgundi plant (Vitex negundo, white), Mushikaparni root/rhizome (Ipomoea reniformis), and Bhargi root/resin (Turk’s turban / Clerodendron serratum).

Talishadyam churna (Chakradatta) contains Talisham leaf (rhododendron / Rhododendron stesum), Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Twak bark (Cinnamon / Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum) mixed with Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum).

Tinduksthi kasmarya (Susruta Samhita) is made from Tinduka bark (Dyospyros cordifolia), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra) and Kashmari bark (kashmarya / Gmelina arborea)

Trikatu contains Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Maricham fruit (black pepper / Piper nigrum), and Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis).

Trikaturasayana vati are made from Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Jirakam seed (cumin / Cuminum cyminum), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex) and Lasunam bulb (garlic / Allium sativum), ground with Nimbu juice (lemon / Citrus limonium). Standard dosage is 2 pills twice daily

Triphala is the classic formula comprised of the three rejuvenating fruits: Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Bibhitaki (Terminalia belerica), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula). It can be prepared as a churna (powder) or as an aqueous extract, and is commonly fond as an ingredient in many other formulas.

Triphala Guggulu vati are made from Guggulu gum resin (Balsamodendron mukul), Triphala, and Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum).

Triphaladi ghritam (Bhaisajya Ratnavali) is made with Triphala, Vasaka leaf (Malabar nut / Adhatoda vasica), Bhringaraja plant (Eclipta alba), Shatavari root (asparagus / Asparagus racemosus), Guduchi stem (Tinospora cordifolia), Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica) and Aja paya (goat milk). Other herbs added in small measure are Maricham seed (black pepper / Piper nigrum), Draksha fruit (grape / Vitis vinifera), Chandanam wood (white sandalwood / Santalum album), Saindhavam (mineral salt), Bala plant (country mallow / Sida cordifolia), Kakoli bulb (Fritillaria cirrhosa), Pippali fruit (long pepper / Piper longum), Sunthi root (dry ginger / Zingiber officinalis), Vetasa (cane sugar / Saccharum officinarum), Padmam (white lotus / Nelumbo nucifera), Nilotpalam flower (Blue lotus / Iris nepalensis), Punarnava plant/root (Boerhavia difusa), Daruharidra bark extract (barberry / Berberis nepalensis), Haridra root (turmeric / Curcuma longa), Madhukam root (licorice / Glycyrrhiza glabra) and ghrita (ghee / clarified butter). It is typically taken with milk as an anupana.

Trisana compound (Susruta Samhita) is made from Trikatu (Piper longum, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinalis), Saurvarchalam (black salt), Yavakshara alkaline ash (barley plant / Hordeum vulgare), and Sarjikshara (sodium bicarbonate). These ingredients are combined with honey and made into a paste.

Usakadigana contains Shilajita complex , Saindhavam (mineral salt), Kashisa (ferrous sulfate), Hingu gum (asafoetida / Ferula narthex), and Tutthakam Bhasma (purified copper sulphate).

Vachadiyoga churna (Susruta Samhita) is made from Vacha rhizome (acorus / Acorus calamus), Shatavari root (asparagus / Asparagus racemosus) and Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica).

Vakuchyadi vati (Chakradatta) contain Vakuchi seed (Psoralia corylifolia), Khadira extract (catechu / Acacia catechu, white), and Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica).

Varunadigana (Susruta Samhita) is a solidified decoction containing Varuna bark (Three-leaved caper / Crataeva religiosa), Sobhanjan (Moringa oleifera), Agnimantha (Premna integrifolia), Apamarga herb (Achyranthes aspera), Gajapippali fruit (Piper chava), Shatavari root (asparagus / Asparagus racemosus), and Bilwa fruit (bael / Aegle marmelos).

Vatakulantaka rasa is made from Manashila Bhasma (purified realgar), Rasasindura (red crystal of mercury sulphide), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Jatiphalam (nutmeg / Myristica fragrans), Ela fruit (greater cardamon / Amomum subulatum), Lavangam seeds (clove / Syzigium aromaticum), Abhraka Bhasma (purified mica oxide) and Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica). This compound is more powerful when taken with Kasturi (deer musk / Moschus moschiferus).

Visamajwarahara vati (Rasatarangini) contain one part Shankhia bisha Bhasma (arsenic) with 100 parts of Latakaranja seed / (Caesalpinia sepiaria). This medicine is poisonous, and used only for a short period of time. Standard dosage is 2 pills twice daily.

Visatinduka taila is made from Kuchila seed (purified nux vomica /Strychnos nuxvomica) and Tila seed oil (sesame / Sesamum indicum).

Yavaniyoga contains Bibhitaki fruit (Terminalia belerica), Gandhaka Bhasma (purified sulfur oxide), Shukti Bhasma (oyster shell ash /Ostrea gigas), Kiratatiktam plant (Swertia chirata), Swarnapatri leaf (senna / Cassia auriculata) and Amalaki fruit (Indian gooseberry / amla / Phyllanthus emblica)

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